# Physics Courses

### PHY 1020 (PS) Conceptual Physics: The Basic Science

Physical concepts and practical applications to everyday life of the basic principles of motion, forces, energy, matter, heat, sound, electricity, magnetism, and light. Lectures, demonstrations and optional laboratory; laboratory is strongly recommended. Meets General Education Laboratory Requirement when elected for 4 credits.

### PHY 1020 (PS) Conceptual Physics: The Basic Science

*Meets General Education Laboratory Requirement when elected for 4 credits (fee applies).*

Physical concepts and practical applications to everyday life of the basic principles of motion, forces, energy, matter, heat, sound, electricity, magnetism, and light. Lectures, demonstrations and optional laboratory; laboratory is strongly recommended. Meets General Education Laboratory Requirement when elected for 4 credits.

### PHY 2020 Science, Technology, and War

*May not be used to fulfill natural science group requirement.*

Modern weapons, nuclear and otherwise are becoming increasingly available and dangerous; people with grievances seem eager to use them. Science and technology, as well as constraints of bureaucracy and society underpin weapons development and use, as technologies affect prospects and results of war and peace. History of humanity and its tools of war.

### PHY 2130 (PS) Physics for the Life Sciences I

*Prereq: high school algebra and trigonometry; coreq: PHY 2131. Satisfies General Education Laboratory Requirement only when taken concurrently with PHY 2131. No credit after PHY 2170.*

Introduction to physics for students in the life sciences, preparing for medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and health sciences and for general Liberal Arts and Sciences students. Covers motion, forces, energy, diffusion, fluids, thermal physics with many biological examples. Satisfies General Education laboratory requirement only when taken concurrently with PHY 2131. No credit after PHY 2170.

### PHY 2130 (PS) Physics for the Life Sciences I

*Corequisite: PHY 2131*

Introduction to physics for students in the life sciences, preparing for medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and health sciences and for general Liberal Arts and Sciences students. Covers motion, forces, energy, diffusion, fluids, thermal physics with many biological examples. Satisfies General Education laboratory requirement only when taken concurrently with PHY 2131. No credit after PHY 2170.

### PHY 2131 Physics for the Life Sciences Laboratory

*Coreq: PHY 2130. Satisfies General Education laboratory requirement only when taken concurrently with PHY 2130.*

Laboratory experiments in fluid mechanics, diffusion and biophysics. Satisfies General Education laboratory requirement only when taken concurrently with PHY 2130.

### PHY 2131 Physics for the Life Sciences Laboratory

Laboratory experiments in fluid mechanics, diffusion and biophysics. Satisfies General Education laboratory requirement only when taken concurrently with PHY 2130.

### PHY 2140 (PS) Physics for the Life Sciences II

*Prereq: PHY 2130 both with grade of C- or above; coreq: PHY 2141. No credit after PHY 2180.*

Second part of introduction to physics for students in the life sciences, students preparing for medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and health sciences and for general Liberal Arts and Sciences students. Covers thermodynamics, electric fields, oscillations, waves and optics. Satisfies General Education laboratory requirement only when taken concurrently with PHY 2141. No credit after PHY 2180.

### PHY 2140 (PS) Physics for the Life Sciences II

*Prerequisites: ([PHY 2130 with a minimum grade of C-])Corequisite: PHY 2141*

Second part of introduction to physics for students in the life sciences, students preparing for medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and health sciences and for general Liberal Arts and Sciences students. Covers thermodynamics, electric fields, oscillations, waves and optics. Satisfies General Education laboratory requirement only when taken concurrently with PHY 2141. No credit after PHY 2180.

### PHY 2141 Physics for the Life Sciences Laboratory

*Coreq: PHY 2140.*

Laboratory experiments in electric fields, fluids, optics and spectroscopy. Satisfies General Education laboratory requirement only when taken concurrently with PHY 2140.

### PHY 2141 Physics for the Life Sciences Laboratory

Laboratory experiments in electric fields, fluids, optics and spectroscopy. Satisfies General Education laboratory requirement only when taken concurrently with PHY 2140.

### PHY 2170 (PS) University Physics for Scientists I

*Prereq: MAT1800; coreq: MAT 2010, PHY 2171. Satisfies General Education Laboratory Requirement only when taken concurrently with PHY 2171. No credit after PHY 2175.*

For students specializing in physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics or engineering. Statics, kinematics, dynamics, energy and linear momentum, rotational kinematics and dynamics, angular momentum, solids and fluids, vibrations and wave motion, thermodynamics. Satisfies General Education Laboratory Requirement only when taken concurrently with PHY 2171. No credit after PHY 2175.

### PHY 2170 (PS) University Physics for Scientists I

*Prerequisites: ([MAT 1800 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND (May be taken concurrently: [MAT 2010 with a minimum grade of C-]) Corequisite: PHY 2171*

For students specializing in physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics or engineering. Statics, kinematics, dynamics, energy and linear momentum, rotational kinematics and dynamics, angular momentum, solids and fluids, vibrations and wave motion, thermodynamics. Satisfies General Education Laboratory Requirement only when taken concurrently with PHY 2171. No credit after PHY 2175.

### PHY 2171 University Physics Laboratory

*Coreq: PHY 2170. Satisfies General Education laboratory requirement only when taken concurrently with PHY 2170.*

Laboratory experiments in statics, kinematics, dynamics, energy and linear momentum, rotational kinematics and dynamics, angular momentum, simple harmonic motion, optics, continuum mechanics, thermodynamics. Satisfies General Education laboratory requirement only when taken concurrently with PHY 2170.

### PHY 2171 University Physics Laboratory

Laboratory experiments in statics, kinematics, dynamics, energy and linear momentum, rotational kinematics and dynamics, angular momentum, simple harmonic motion, optics, continuum mechanics, thermodynamics. Satisfies General Education laboratory requirement only when taken concurrently with PHY 2170.

### PHY 2175 (PS) University Physics for Engineers I

*Prerequisites: ([MAT 1800 with a minimum grade of D-]) AND (May be taken concurrently: [MAT 2010 with a minimum grade of C]) Restriction(s): Enrollment limited to students in the College of Engineering.*

For students specializing in engineering. Statics, kinematics, dynamics, energy and linear momentum, rotational kinematics and dynamics, angular momentum, solids and fluids, vibrations and wave motion, thermodynamics. No credit after PHY 2170.

### PHY 2175 (PS) University Physics for Engineers I

*Prereq: MAT 1800; coreq: MAT 2010. Open only to College of Engineering students. No credit after PHY 2170.*

For students specializing in engineering. Statics, kinematics, dynamics, energy and linear momentum, rotational kinematics and dynamics, angular momentum, solids and fluids, vibrations and wave motion, thermodynamics. No credit after PHY 2170.

### PHY 2180 University Physics for Scientists II

*Prerequisites: ([MAT 2010 with a minimum grade of D-]) AND (May be taken concurrently: [MAT 2020 with a minimum grade of D-]) AND ([PHY 2170 with a minimum grade of C-]) Corequisite: PHY 2181*

Electric forces and electric fields, electrical energy, capacitance, current, resistance, direct current circuits, magnetism, induced voltage and inductance, AC circuits, electromagnetic waves, geometric and wave optics. No credit after PHY 2185.

### PHY 2180 University Physics for Scientists II

*Prereq: PHY 2170 with a grade of C- or above and MAT 2010; coreq: PHY 2181 and MAT 2020. No credit after PHY 2185.*

Electric forces and electric fields, electrical energy, capacitance, current, resistance, direct current circuits, magnetism, induced voltage and inductance, AC circuits, electromagnetic waves, geometric and wave optics. No credit after PHY 2185.

### PHY 2181 University Physics Laboratory II

*Coreq: PHY 2180.*

Laboratory experiments in electrostatics, currents and circuit elements, magnetic fields, magnetic induction, AC circuits, electromagnetic waves, interference of waves.

### PHY 2181 University Physics Laboratory II

Laboratory experiments in electrostatics, currents and circuit elements, magnetic fields, magnetic induction, AC circuits, electromagnetic waves, interference of waves.

### PHY 2185 University Physics for Engineers II

*Prerequisites: ([PHY 2170 with a minimum grade of C-] OR [PHY 2175 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND ([MAT 2010 with a minimum grade of D-]) AND (May be taken concurrently: [MAT 2020 with a minimum grade of D-])Restriction(s): Enrollment limited to students in the College of Engineering.*

Electric forces and electric fields, electrical energy, capacitance, current, resistance, direct current circuits, magnetism, induced voltage and inductance, AC circuits, electromagnetic waves, geometric and wave optics. No credit after PHY 2180.

### PHY 2185 University Physics for Engineers II

*Prereq: PHY 2170 or 2175 with a grade of C- or above, MAT 2010; Coreq: MAT 2020. Open only to College of Engineering students. No credit after PHY 2180.*

Electric forces and electric fields, electrical energy, capacitance, current, resistance, direct current circuits, magnetism, induced voltage and inductance, AC circuits, electromagnetic waves, geometric and wave optics. No credit after PHY 2180.

### PHY 2210 General Physics Laboratory

*PHY 1020 if taken for three credits. No credit after PHY 1020 if taken for four credits.*

Consult departmental undergraduate academic advisor prior to registering for this course. No credit after PHY 1020 if taken for four credits.

### PHY 2210 General Physics Laboratory

*Prerequisite: PHY 1020 with a minimum grade of D-*

Consult departmental undergraduate academic advisor prior to registering for this course. No credit after PHY 1020 if taken for four credits.

### PHY 3100 (PS) The Sounds of Music

*Prereq: sophomore standing. Meets General Education Laboratory Requirement.*

For music majors and other students interested in the physical foundations of the production, perception, and reproduction of musical sounds. Makes only limited use of simple mathematics. Includes topics such as wave properties, loudness levels and the human ear, hearing loss, tone quality, frequency and pitch, musical intervals and tuning, room acoustics, the production of sound by various musical instruments, and electronic reproduction of music. Meets General Education Laboratory Requirement.

### PHY 3300 Introductory Modern Physics

*Prereq: PHY 2170/2171 and PHY 2180/2181 (or PHY 2130/2131 and PHY 2140/2141), and MAT 2020 each with a minimum grade average of C- or above; coreq: PHY 3310.*

For physics, chemistry, engineering, mathematics majors and other interested students. Introduction to relativity, quantum phenomena, atomic structure, quantum mechanics, condensed matter physics, quantum optics, nuclear physics, elementary particles, and anti-particles.

### PHY 3300 Introductory Modern Physics

*Prerequisites: ([PHY 2130 with a minimum grade of C- and PHY 2131 with a minimum grade of C-] OR [PHY 2170 with a minimum grade of C- and PHY 2171 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND ([PHY 2140 with a minimum grade of C- and PHY 2141 with a minimum grade of C-] OR [PHY 2180 with a minimum grade of C- and PHY 2181 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND ([MAT 2020 with a minimum grade of C-]) Corequisite: PHY 3310*

For physics, chemistry, engineering, mathematics majors and other interested students. Introduction to relativity, quantum phenomena, atomic structure, quantum mechanics, condensed matter physics, quantum optics, nuclear physics, elementary particles, and anti-particles.

### PHY 3310 Introductory Modern Physics Laboratory

*Prerequisites: ([PHY 2140 with a minimum grade of D- and PHY 2141 with a minimum grade of D-] OR [PHY 2180 with a minimum grade of D- and PHY 2181 with a minimum grade of D-]) AND (May be taken concurrently: [PHY 3300 with a minimum grade of D-] OR [PHY 5015 with a minimum grade of D-])*

Laboratory course to accompany PHY 3300. Hands-on experience in logical and rigorous analysis of phenomena of modern physics.

### PHY 3310 Introductory Modern Physics Laboratory

*Prereq: PHY 2140/2141 or 2180/2181; coreq: PHY 3300 or PHY 5015.*

Laboratory course to accompany PHY 3300. Hands-on experience in logical and rigorous analysis of phenomena of modern physics.

### PHY 3700 Mathematics for Biomedical Physics

*Prereq: PHY 2170/2171 and PHY 2180/2181 (or PHY 2130/2131 and PHY 2140/2141), and MAT 2020 each with a minimum grade average of C- or above.*

Training in specific applied topics of mathematics for biomedical physics majors.

### PHY 3750 Introduction to Computational Methods

*Prereq: PHY 2130 and PHY 2140 (or PHY 2170 and PHY 2180) and MAT 2020 each with a minimum grade average of C- or above. Open to Biomedical Physics majors only.*

Introduction to the principles of computer programming with MATLAB or similar software. In addition to learning applications of the software, there will be opportunities for independent or group projects of interest to students.

### PHY 3990 Directed Study

*Prereq: written consent of advisor and instructor.*

Primarily for students who wish to continue in a field beyond material covered in regular courses, or who wish to study material not covered in regular courses, including certain research participation.

### PHY 3990 Directed Study

Primarily for students who wish to continue in a field beyond material covered in regular courses, or who wish to study material not covered in regular courses, including certain research participation.

### PHY 4700 Introduction to Biomedical Physics

*Prerequisites: ([PHY 2130 with a minimum grade of C- and PHY 2140 with a minimum grade of C-] OR [PHY 2170 with a minimum grade of C- and PHY 2180 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND ([PHY 3700 with a minimum grade of C-]) AND ([MAT 2020 with a minimum grade of D-])*

Basic and applied physical concepts used in biology, human anatomy, and physiology, as well as in medical diagnosis and treatment.

### PHY 5010 Astrophysics and Stellar Astronomy

*Prereq: PHY 3300 with a grade of C- or above.*

Electromagnetic radiation and matter; solar characteristics; stellar distances; magnitudes; spectral classification; celestial mechanics; binary stars; stellar motions, structure and evolution; compact and variable stars; Milky Way Galaxy and interstellar medium; galaxies and clusters of galaxies; quasars; Hubble's Law; cosmology.

### PHY 5100 Methods of Theoretical Physics I

*Prereq: PHY 2180 and MAT 2030; both with a grade of C- or better.*

Introduction to mathematical tools used in advanced courses in physics.

### PHY 5200 Classical Mechanics I

*Prereq: PHY 2180 with a minimum of a C- or better; coreq: PHY 5100.*

Introduction to fundamental ideas: Newton's laws, notions of momentum, angular momentum, kinetic and potential energy, mechanical energy, conservation laws, motion in 1- and 3-D, friction and retardation forces, oscillations, resonances, and gravitation.

### PHY 5210 Classical Mechanics II

*Prerequisite: PHY 5200 with a minimum grade of C- and MAT 2150 with a minimum grade of C-*

Accelerated reference frames, centrifugal and Coriolis forces, rigid body dynamics, motion of tops and gyroscopes, Lagrange's equations, constraints, Lagrange multipliers, general central force problem, stability of orbits, relativistic mechanics.

### PHY 5340 Optics

*Prerequisites: ([MAT 2030 with a minimum grade of C- and PHY 2140 with a minimum grade of C-] OR [PHY 2180 with a minimum grade of C- and PHY 3700 with a minimum grade of C-] OR [PHY 2140 with a minimum grade of C- and PHY 3700 with a minimum grade of C-] OR [MAT 2030 with a minimum grade of C- and PHY 2180 with a minimum grade of C-])*

Electromagnetic radiation; geometrical, physical, and modern optics.

### PHY 5341 Optics Laboratory

*Prerequisites: (May be taken concurrently: [ECE 5760 with a minimum grade of C]) AND (May be taken concurrently: [PHY 5340 with a minimum grade of C])*

Experiments involving geometrical, physical, and quantum optics.

### PHY 5620 Electronics and Electrical Measurements

*Prereq: PHY 2140/2141 or PHY 2180/2181 with a grade of C- or above; Coreq: PHY 5621.*

Theory of amplifier circuits, operational amplifiers, oscillators, digital electronics, analog and digital measurements.

### PHY 5621 Electronics and Electrical Measurements Laboratory

*Prereq: PHY 2140/2141 or PHY 2180/2181 with a grade of C- or above; Coreq: PHY 5620.*

Laboratory measurements related to amplifier circuits, operational amplifiers, oscillators, and digital electronics. The lab will also cover analog and digital measurements and will require a final project.

### PHY 5750 Biological Physics

*Prereq: PHY 3700 and PHY 4700 both with a grade of C- or above.*

Introduction to applications of physics to molecular biology.

### PHY 5990 Directed Study

Primarily for students who wish to continue in a field beyond material covered in regular courses, or who wish to study material not covered in regular courses, including certain research participation.

### PHY 5990 Directed Study

*Prereq: junior standing and written consent of advisor and instructor.*

### PHY 6400 Quantum Physics I

*Prerequisites: ([MAT 2150 with a minimum grade of C-, PHY 3300 with a minimum grade of C-, and PHY 5100 with a minimum grade of C-])*

Operators and their eigenfunctions, quantization rules, solution of Schroedinger equation in 1- and 3-D, the hydrogen atom, angular momentum, spin, boson, fermions, Time-independent perturbation theory.

### PHY 6410 Quantum Physics II

*Prereq: PHY 6400 with a grade of C- or above.*

Applications of quantum mechanics: atoms in electric and magnetic fields, multielectron atoms, molecules, quantum statistics, solids (band structure, magnetic properties), nuclei, fundamental forces and standard model.

### PHY 6450 Introduction to Material and Device Characterizations

*Prerequisite: (PHY 7050 (may be taken concurrently) or ECE 5500 (may be taken concurrently) or ECE 5550 (may be taken concurrently)) Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.*

Lecture/laboratory; introduction to analytic and measurement techniques for characterizing and evaluating materials, especially for potential applicability in sensor and integrated devices. Techniques include diffraction and microscopy methods, electron spectroscopies, and electrical, optical and magnetic measurements. Offered for graduate credit only.

### PHY 6500 Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics

*Prereq: PHY 3300 and PHY 5100 with a grade of C- or above.*

Laws of thermodynamics, thermodynamic equilibrium, applications of kinetic theory of gases, basic introduction to classical and quantum statistical description of physical systems with large numbers of particles.

### PHY 6570 Smart Sensor Technology I: Design

*Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.*

Introduction to various types of sensors and the design of basic analog VLSI circuit building blocks. Offered for graduate credit only.

### PHY 6600 Electromagnetic Fields I

*Prereq: PHY 5100, PHY 5200, MAT 2150 all with a grade of C- or above.*

Topics include electrostatics, solution of Laplace equation, dielectric media, electric current, magnetic field of steady currents, magnetic properties of matter, electromagnetic induction.

### PHY 6610 Electromagnetic Fields II

*Prerequisite: PHY 6600 with a minimum grade of C-*

Continuation of PHY 6600: Maxwell equations, electromagnetism and relativity, optics, wave guides and transmission lines, radiation of EM waves.

### PHY 6710 Physics in Medicine

*Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to students with a major in Biomedical Physics.*

Applications of physics in medicine including radioactivity; interaction of radiation in matter; x-ray, CT, MRI, ultrasound, and PET imaging; nuclear medicine; radiation oncology; nerve electrophysiology, electrocardiogram, pacemakers, and defibrillators.

### PHY 6750 Applied Computational Methods

*Prereq: PHY 3750 or PHY 3310 with a grade of C- or above.*

Development of concepts learned in PHY 3750 or PHY 3310 for computer applications in physics research, including applications in theoretical physics, data fitting, image analysis, and integration with experimental equipment. There will be opportunities for independent as well as group projects.

### PHY 6780 (WI) Research Methods in Biomedical Physics

*Prerequisites: ([PHY 3700 with a minimum grade of C- and PHY 4700 with a minimum grade of C-])*

Introduction to laboratory experience in biomedical physics research. Capstone course for biomedical physics majors.

### PHY 6850 (WI) Modern Physics Laboratory

*Prerequisites: ([PHY 3300 with a minimum grade of C-])*

Techniques and experiments in physics of atoms, atomic nuclei, molecules, the solid state and other areas that have advanced our modern understanding of physics.

### PHY 6860 Computational Physics

*Prerequisites: ([PHY 3310 with a minimum grade of C-] OR [PHY 5100 with a minimum grade of C-])*

Introduction to use of computers to model physical systems; description of techniques in numerical analysis including linear algebra, integration, algebraic and differential equations, data analysis and symbolic algebra.

### PHY 6991 Special Topics

*Prereq: written consent of instructor. Offered for S and U grades only. Offered for graduate credit only.*

Topics and prerequisites for each section to be announced in Schedule of Classes . More than one section may be elected in a semester. Offered for graduate credit only.

### PHY 7050 Survey of Condensed Matter Physics

*Prerequisite: PHY 6400 with a minimum grade of C Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.*

Contemporary solid state physics dealing primarily with experiments in this area and with modern descriptive models of solids.

### PHY 7060 Survey of Elementary Particle Physics

*Prerequisite: PHY 6400 with a minimum grade of C Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.*

Fundamental interactions and the basic particles; introduction to quantum mechanical treatment of decay, scattering, spin, internal symmetries; introduction to quantum field theory; gauge theories; the standard model and proposed modifications; experimental evidence; survey of experimental methods, detector, accelerators and colliders.

### PHY 7110 Methods of Theoretical Physics II

*Prereq: PHY 5100 or equiv.*

Complex variables and their applications. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous differential equations. Special functions such as gamma functions, Bessel functions, Legendre functions, Hermite functions and Laguerre functions. Fourier series.

### PHY 7400 Quantum Mechanics I

*Prereq: PHY 6410; coreq: PHY 7110 or equiv.*

Physical and mathematical principles of quantum mechanics. Schrodinger equation and its applications. Spin and angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The WKB approximation. Perturbation theory for time-independent and time-dependent cases.

### PHY 7410 Quantum Mechanics II

*Prerequisite: PHY 7400 with a minimum grade of C Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.*

Scattering theory. Partial wave expansion and perturbation theory. Bound states. Symmetry principles and conservation laws. The path integral formalism. Entanglement. Quantum computation. Charged particles in electromagnetic fields. Quantum theory of radiation. Relativistic one-particle equations

### PHY 7500 Statistical Mechanics

*Prereq: PHY 6500, PHY 7400.*

Classical and quantum statistical mechanics and applications.

### PHY 7550 Advanced Condensed Matter Physics: Solid State

*Prereq: PHY 7050, PHY 7110, and PHY 7400.*

Current topics in condensed matter physics, including electronic band structure, magnetism, superconductivity, nanophysics, and the optical properties of solids.

### PHY 7600 Electromagnetic Theory I

*Prerequisite: PHY 6610 with a minimum grade of C Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.*

Microscopic and macroscopic Maxwell's equations, special relativity, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of EM theory, energy-momentum tensor, conservation laws, radiation, scattering, applications.

### PHY 7990 Directed Study

*Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.*

Application forms available in department office. Primarily for graduate students in physics who wish to study material not covered in regular courses.

### PHY 7990 Directed Study

*Prereq: written consent of advisor, instructor, and graduate officer must be obtained prior to registration.*

Application forms available in department office. Primarily for graduate students in physics who wish to study material not covered in regular courses.

### PHY 7996 Research in Physics

*Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.*

### PHY 7996 Research in Physics

*Prereq: written consent of advisor and graduate officer.*

### PHY 7999 Master's Essay Direction

*Restriction(s): Enrollment limited to students with a class of Candidate Masters; enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.*

### PHY 7999 Master's Essay Direction

*Prereq: written consent of advisor.*

### PHY 8850 Quantum Theory of Fields I

*Prereq: PHY 7110, 7410.*

Introduction to quantum field theory, classical and path integral quantization of scalar, spinor, and vector fields, gauge theories, interactions and Feynman rules, modal field theories, Hubbard model, introduction to renormalization Suitable for both students of theory and experiment in the fields of nuclear, particle, and condensed matter physics and astrophysics.

### PHY 8860 Quantum Theory of Fields II

*Prerequisite: PHY 8850 with a minimum grade of C Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.*

Symmetry and symmetry breaking. Goldstone theorem and Higgs effect, renormalization group, collective phenomena, superfluids and superconductivity, the Standard Model of electroweak interactions, effective field theories. Appropriate for students in fields of nuclear, particle, condensed matter physics and astrophysics.

### PHY 8991 Special Topics

*Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.*

Topics and prerequisites for each section to be announced in Schedule of Classes . More than one topic may be elected in a semester.

### PHY 8991 Special Topics

*Prereq: written consent of instructor, advisor and graduate officer. Offered for S and U grades only.*

Topics and prerequisites for each section to be announced in Schedule of Classes . More than one topic may be elected in a semester.

### PHY 8995 Colloquium

*Offered for S and U grades only.*

Must be elected every semester by all graduate physics students. Lectures given by external visitors and graduate faculty.

### PHY 8995 Colloquium

*Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.*

Must be elected every semester by all graduate physics students. Lectures given by external visitors and graduate faculty.

### PHY 8999 Master's Thesis Research and Direction

*Restriction(s): Enrollment limited to students with a class of Candidate Masters; enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.*

### PHY 8999 Master's Thesis Research and Direction

*Prereq: written consent of advisor.*

### PHY 9990 Pre-Doctoral Candidacy Research

*Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.*

Research in preparation for doctoral dissertation.

### PHY 9990 Pre-Doctoral Candidacy Research

*Prereq: written consent of department and approval by Ph.D. Officer of the Graduate School. Offered for S and U grades only.*

Research in preparation for doctoral dissertation.

### PHY 9991 Doctoral Candidate Status I: Dissertation Research and Direction

*Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.*

### PHY 9991 Doctoral Candidate Status I: Dissertation Research and Direction

*Prereq: Ph.D. candidate in department and approval by the Ph.D Officer of the Graduate School. Required in academic-year semester following advancement to Ph.D. candidacy. Offered for S and U grades only.*

### PHY 9992 Doctoral Candidate Status II: Dissertation Research and Direction

*Prerequisite: PHY 9991 with a minimum grade of S Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.*

### PHY 9992 Doctoral Candidate Status II: Dissertation Research and Direction

*Prereq: PHY 9991 and approval by the Ph.D. Officer of the Graduate School. Required in academic-year semester following PHY 9991. Offered for S and U grades only.*

### PHY 9993 Doctoral Candidate Status III: Dissertation Research and Direction

*Prerequisite: PHY 9992 with a minimum grade of S Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.*

### PHY 9993 Doctoral Candidate Status III: Dissertation Research and Direction

*Prereq: PHY 9992 and approval by the Ph.D. Officer of the Graduate School. Required in academic-year semester following PHY 9992. Offered for S and U grades only.*

### PHY 9994 Doctoral Candidate Status IV: Dissertation Research and Direction

*Prerequisite: PHY 9993 with a minimum grade of S Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.*

### PHY 9994 Doctoral Candidate Status IV: Dissertation Research and Direction

*Prereq: PHY 9993 and approval of Ph.D. Officer of the Graduate School. Required in academic-year semester following PHY 9993. Offered for S and U grades only.*

### PHY 9995 Candidate Maintenance Status: Doctoral Dissertation Research and Direction

*Prereq: approval by the Ph.D. Officer of the Graduate School; completion of 30 credits in PHY 9991-9994. Offered for S and U grades only.*

### PHY 9995 Candidate Maintenance Status: Doctoral Dissertation Research and Direction

*Restriction(s): Enrollment is limited to Graduate level students.*